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in vivo measurements

4D Technology has partnered with top contact lens manufacturers to develop custom systems that measure both lenses and lens molds.

4D also works with major organizations to study the corneal surface and the thickness and variation in the tear film. Non-contact interferometry has rarely been an effective tool in measurements involving live subjects, as even slight movement of the subject will render the measurement data unusable. However, 4D’s Dynamic Interferometry technology enables near-instantaneous measurement, which overcomes this limitation and enables high-resolution measurement in real-time of the cornea and tear film.

4D PhaseCam interferometers provide the resolution, vibration immunity and advanced analysis software to aid researchers studying the corneal surface and tear films. The unique instruments aid in studying eye responses to help improve vision correction and to understand complex eye mechanisms.

Added Technical Resources


Measuring Motion of Living Cells

A novel Linnik microscope that images and data of live biological samples using video measurements of dynamic motions within and among live cells without the need for contrast agents. Data from pond organisms and human breast cancer cells are presented.


Creath, Katherine & Goldstein, Goldie & Zecchino, Mike. (2019). Dynamic Phase Shifting Microscope Enables Measurement of Motion of Living Cells.

Dynamic quantitative phase images of pond life, insect wings, and in vitro cell cultures

Data from a number of different mud puddle organisms such as paramecium, flagellates and rotifers will be presented, as will measurements of flying ant wings and cultures of human breast  cancer cells. These data highlight examples of monitoring different biological processes and motions.

Creath, K.  2010 Aug 2;7782. doi: 10.1117/12.864275

Products for In Vivo  Measurement

Custom Solutions

Using PhaseCam to make realtime, nearly instantaneous measurements enables measurement of the cornea and tear film.

Custom Solutions

Using NanoCam in a custom configuration, you can obtain quantitative cell motion in real time.

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(520) 294-5600


3280 E Hemisphere Loop, Ste 146
Tucson, AZ 85706


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